Most Popular Web3 Programming Languages in 2023

In the rapidly evolving landscape of web3 and blockchain technology, selecting the appropriate programming language is not an easy task, requiring careful consideration. Creating decentralized applications requires developers to choose the appropriate Web3 programming language. It is crucial to select the right language to ensure that the application is developed efficiently and effectively.

Understanding the nuances and strengths of various programming languages catering to Web3 becomes crucial. Our Finance software development company has developers who work with Web3 languages for various projects. Talking to them regarding this blog, helped me to present you an informative content.

They use programming languages like Solidity, JavaScript, Rust, Vyper, and Golang. Go is making waves with its useful capabilities and features. Exploring these languages and their relevance in the context of Web3 development can influence the creation of secure scalable and decentralized applications.

Let’s delve into the most popular Web3 programming languages in this blog. You will gain crucial information and facts while reading this write and use it as guidance for better application development.

Without any additional delay, let’s commence our task.

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What is Web3 programming language?

Web3 term is associated with the decentralized web. It’s a new concept in Internet technology that emphasizes decentralization, user ownership of data, and blockchain-based applications. It is not a specific programming language but an umbrella term for a set of emerging technologies and protocols.

Here is the chronology of Web evolution.

  1. Web1 (1991-2004)
  2. Web2 (Since 2004)
  3. Web3 (Decentralization and blockchain)

They aim to transform the current web into more decentralized and user-centric ecosystem. While there is no distinct programming language called “Web3”. Developers working within this domain use various languages, as mentioned below.

  1. Solidity
  2. Rust
  3. JavaScript
  4. Vyper
  5. Go
  6. Huff
  7. Haskell
  8. Move
  9. Cairo

We will explore these all languages in the blog. Meanwhile have the quick information about them. Solidity is used for Ethereum smart contracts, JavaScript for decentralized applications, Rust for blockchain development, and others to develop applications to interact with decentralized networks, cryptocurrencies, and blockchain technologies. It enhances security, privacy, and ownership of data.

Have a look at the below image. It presents mostly used programming languages by developers.

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Types of Web3 languages

Web3 languages can be categorized based on their purpose within the blockchain and decentralized technology landscape.

1) Smart contract languages:

These are specifically designed for writing and executing smart contracts on blockchain platforms. Examples are Solidity, Vyper, and Move.

2) Protocol and infrastructure languages:

These languages focus on building the foundational aspects of blockchain, including consensus mechanisms, network protocols, and core infrastructure. Examples are C++ (Bitcoin) Rust (Polkadot), and Golang (Ethereum).

3) Privacy and security-focused languages:

Some languages specialize in enhancing privacy and security features within blockchain networks. Cairo for instance, emphasizes scalability and privacy in transactions.

4) Specialized domain languages:

Certain languages are designed for specific blockchain networks or platforms to address particular challenges or unique functionalities. For example Huff for Holochain and Haskell for Cardano.

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Best Web3 languages used by developers

Developers choose programming languages based on the blockchain platform and specific use cases.

  1. Solidity
  2. JavaScript
  3. Rust
  4. Vyper
  5. Golang
  6. Huff
  7. Haskell
  8. Move
  9. Cairo

Let’s read about each Web3 language in detail below.

1) Solidity:

Smart contracts for Ethereum are written in Solidity, a high-level language designed for the Ethereum Virtual Machine (EVM). Solidity serves as a web3 programming language of the blockchain world. It is specially designed for creating smart contracts. You can also create self-executing contracts with pre-defined rules on Ethereum and other similar platforms.

What are smart contracts?

Some programs are written in blockchain to ensure security and transparency are called smart contracts. They are self-executing contracts with pre-defined conditions written in code.

It is a tool used to write the rules and functions governing these contracts. It defines how they should operate. On the other hand, web3 represents a set of libraries and tools that allow communication between applications and the blockchain.

Together, solidity and Web3 enable the creation of decentralized systems that run without a central authority. They allow developers to build apps that don’t rely on a single entity. However, a network of computers is crucial for sustainability. So, this technology promises a future where transactions are transparent.

2) JavaScript:

This web3 programming language is widely used for frontend development of decentralized applications, typescript, a superset of JavaScript. It is gaining popularity because of its safety features. In the world of Web3 JavaScript programming language  plays a crucial role. It is used for interacting with blockchain networks and decentralized applications (dApps).

With Web3 libraries like Web3.js, JavaScript facilitates communication between browsers and blockchain networks like Ethereum. It allows developers to build interfaces, connect to smart contracts, and enable user interaction within dApps.

JavaScript has the power to enable developers to create an intuitive and user-friendly interface for decentralized applications. Though functions are provided by Web3 libraries, developers can manage user wallets, send transactions to the blockchain, and interact seamlessly with smart contracts.

People also like to read: What is the difference between Java and JavaScript?

3) Rust:

This web3 programming language is known for its safety and efficiency. Rust is used in the blockchain development. Particularly, building blockchain protocols, and improving the security of blockchain networks. This programming language is gaining attention in the Web3 space due to its emphasis on safety, speed, and concurrency.

In the context of Web3 development, Rust serves as a powerful tool for building robust and secure applications that interact with blockchain networks. The strong safety features of Rust help prevent common programming errors, making it suitable for handling critical tasks within decentralized systems.

Rust can be used to create efficient and reliable components such as blockchain clients, nodes, and tools for interacting with decentralized networks. Its focus on performance and memory safety makes it a promising choice for building a core infrastructure of decentralized applications.

4) Vyper:

It is similar to solidity. Well, Vyper is a smart programming language. It mainly emphasizes simplicity, security, and auditability. It removes complex features present in other languages to ensure contracts. Web3 programming language Vyper reduces potential vulnerabilities in smart contracts.

Vyper is a programming language designed for Ethereum smart contract development. It stands out in the Web3 landscape for its simplicity and focus on security. Unlike other languages, Vyper intentionally limits complex features to enhance readability and reduce the possibility of errors in smart contract code.

This language prioritizes clarity and straightforwardness. It makes the language easier for developers to understand and audit code. Its design revolves around minimizing ambiguity and providing a more secure environment for writing smart contracts. Vypers’ emphasis on simplicity comes with trade-offs such as limited functionalities compared to languages like solidity. However, for scenarios where security and code readability are paramount, Vyper proves to be a valuable choice.

5) Golang:

Golang (Go) is utilized in blockchain development for its performance features. Developers mostly use Golang for implementing nodes and backend infrastructure. In the context of Web3, Go provides a robust foundation for building decentralized applications and blockchain systems. Developers prefer it because of its easy features and strong standard library.

Web3 programming language helps them create complex and high-performing applications more efficiently. Golang developers can handle tasks simultaneously, making the programming language well-suited for blockchain networks that require effective processing of transactions. Its clean syntax and focus on simplicity streamline the development process.

It promotes faster coding and fewer errors. Go is an ideal choice for creating various components of decentralized applications. Go is ideal for developing Slackbot  You can notice developers use it from backend services to implementing nodes. Its uniqueness and speed make it an ideal Web3 programming language.

Also read: What is the difference between Golang and Node.js?

6) Huff:

Huff is an assembly-level and low-level programming language used for developing smart contracts. These smart contracts run on an Ethereum Virtual Machine (EVM). Developers can check its programming stack as it doesn’t hide the inner workings of the EVM. Well, Huff was created by the Aztec protocol team  The team initially developed it for reading  Weierstrude.

EVM experts use Huff to build smart solutions for clients. You as a Huff expert can use this programming language to build highly efficient smart contracts. It’s an effective way for beginners to study more about Huff. Huff was created to overcome the drawbacks of Solidity and Vyper to provide computational power.

Huff is an EVM-compatible language to evaluate smart contracts for better performance. Developers with an interest in EVM can learn how Huff is used for its development.

7) Haskell:

Datadog and Dreamhost support Haskell programming language. It is an effective language for the Cardano blockchain. Developers can build Cardano-like smart contracts using the Haskell programming language. It performs faster than other similar languages. Avalanche, Flare Network, and Near are Web3 Dapps and developer tools related to Haskell. You can go through the Haskell web3 library.

Haskell web3 language leads industries that leverage functional programming. Haskell is different from other imperative programming languages like Solidity, Rust, JavaScript, C, and others. Developers use functions to declare an expected desired outcome. Haskell programming language was used to write Pluto’s On and Off technical architecture.

8) Move:

The programming language Move is exclusively crafted for the Diem blockchain, with the aim of providing a more efficient and secure way of coding on the platform, free from any errors or vulnerabilities. Developers can design safe and smart contracts using Move language. Move language prioritizes safety and security aiming to prevent vulnerabilities and bugs commonly associated with smart contracts.

It employs a resource-oriented programming model. It ensures assets are managed securely and prevents unintended duplication or loss. Move offers many features for smart contracts. They help to design effectively, saving more time spent on creativity. Developers can work with this Web3 programming language to create smart contracts in a short time.

Well, Move is now not connected to the Diem association in 2023. It is used in Aptos and Sui. Aptos is a new blockchain to effectively solve security issues. Its adoption outside the specific ecosystem might be limited compared to more widely-used languages in the broader Web3 and blockchain domains.

9) Cairo:

Starkware developed the Cairo language. It is focused on facilitating scalability and privacy in blockchain transactions. It is designed to efficiently process zero-knowledge proofs. A cryptographic method is used to validate transactions without revealing sensitive information. Cairo’s strength lies in its ability to enhance blockchain scalability by reducing computational loads.

Its language structure and features enable complex computations needed for privacy-focused applications. It offers a balance between security and computational efficiency. Cairo is a tool that developers utilize to design smart contracts that execute computations off-chain.

It reduces the burden on the main blockchain network and enhances transaction processing speed. Cairo is employed within its ecosystem for privacy-preservation transactions.


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Mr. Sanjay Singh Rajpurohit, An early-aged entrepreneur who always leads his team from the front and achieved success. As the founder & CEO of Technource, a top mobile app & Web development company, he made a global presence in a short time by offering custom software development, premium mobile apps, and website development services to global clients. In his free time, he loves writing. He is featured on Hackernoon, Dzone, Enlear Academy, Articlesfactory, and much more websites.

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