Everything You Need to Know About Embedded System Programming


You are surrounded by many embedded systems, but you don’t realize that. It is because embedded system programming has become very common and is used in various devices. Embedded devices are electronic components for example digital cameras, personal computers, medical equipment, calculators, wristwatches, vehicles, IoT gateway, smart TV, ATMs, Washing machine, microwave oven, air conditioners, domestic appliances, and the list is long.

Our software development company builds applications for these electronic and IoT devices. We have qualified developers who know embedded engineering. As you know that embedded system programming is in-demand these days because of extremely efficient device development most businesses want skilled embedded software engineers.

If you don’t know what is embedded system, and is how efficient, you have come across the right piece of information. As a skilled and experienced software developer, I can inform you of everything about embedded systems in this post.

What Is Embedded System?

An embedded system is a computer system and a combination of hardware and software. It includes mechanical and electric parts and electronic devices. So, an embedded system can’t be made up of a single machine, it is a combination of multiple machines to perform a particular task.

The heart of embedded systems is integrated circuits because they are responsible for computation and real-time operations. Embedded system is different from general-purpose computers because they perform diversified tasks while embedded systems perform dedicated functions.

Moreover, an embedded system is not always a computer device with integrated software. However, most embedded devices are based on microcontrollers and microprocessors. An embedded system doesn’t need to have a keyboard and screen. An embedded system can work individually and can be a part of large system hardware to complete tasks of the physical world.




If you look at the embedded market, you can understand the growth by checking the forecast for revenue generation. As per Statista, 43.91 billion US dollars is the expected embedded market revenue in 2022. It can reach 67.29 billion dollars in 2027. Check out the other years’ global embedded computing market revenue in the image below.




What Is Embedded Software Development?

Embedded software development is a process in which an embedded system is built. It is also called embedded engineering through which you learn to control devices and machines. A personal computer is not designed to perform a specific task.

Embedded software engineers understand the requirements and develop the system accordingly. They perform many tasks from planning, designing, and developing to maintaining the embedded system.

Key Features of Embedded System

How will you figure out which is the embedded system? Knowing about the key features will help you with it. Check out the key features of embedded systems in the space below.

  1. Embedded systems are efficient to perform a particular task impeccably. For example, in a car, brakes have the task to stop the car. It’s dedicated work because other than this brakes have no task.
  2. Tightly constrained systems.
  3. Mostly used for repeated functions on a specific device and machine.
  4. Embedded system programming is done in a way that system works within a prescribed time. For example, if the brake of a vehicle doesn’t work at the time you want, it can cause an accident.
  5. Embedded systems have limited or no user interface. It is because there is not much human interaction is required.
  6. Thermometer and GPS tracking device drivers are designed to respond to external stimuli.
  7. Users can not modify embedded systems. They can only utilize them for a specific function.
  8. It is based on microprocessors and microcontrollers.
  9. It can have a special operating system when it is not designed for regular operating systems.
  10. many times real time operating system is used by developers for building control systems.
  11. Requires limited memory, power supply, and computing resources.


Significance of Embedded Systems in Real Life?

Why do people require embedded systems? What are the benefits of using them? You will get to know everything here. An embedded developer has to use many tools and technologies for mobile app development to integrate them into a system.

Many IoT devices and manufacturing machines require a specific type of app to perform a particular task. You will understand the usage better by exploring the below points.

  1. Small systems with powerful computational features, and great processing power.
  2. Require fewer resources and is cost-effective.
  3. Embedded system programming is done for real time operating systems and machines.
  4. Embedded systems are smaller in size and quick to load.
  5. Focused on performing a single task at a time.
  6. Embedded systems focus on delivering quality on time.
  7. Widely used for completing a particular task within the prescribed time.
  8. Some emerging technologies can be used for high-quality performance.
  9. Operating systems used in embedded systems are high-performing because of limited tasks.
  10. Not overwhelmed by the information
  11. They are less likely to repeat mistakes.
  12. Many embedded systems can withstand adverse weather conditions.
  13. Users get consistent reactions and work from these systems.
  14. There is limited or no user interface on an embedded system. It reduces the need for improving UI and UX design.

Explained: Embedded System Structure

An Embedded system structure is a layered structure in which all the hardware resources and software resources have their layers. The combination of these layers is called an embedded system. Have a look at the image below to understand more effectively.



The hardware layer is responsible for dealing with the physical components of the system. Numerous embedded systems have more hardware than software and vice versa as per need. application software handles all the software functions in the embedded system for various tasks.

Some programming languages are used for developing an embedded operating system for example c language and others. Have a look at the components of an embedded system.



  1. 1. Sensor: It converts the physical quantity into an electrical signal. An observer can read these signals that store in sensors.
  2. 2. A-D converter: A-D converter is used to convert analog signals sent by sensors to digital signals.
  3. 3. Processor & ASIC: Processing power lies in the processor. It processes the data and stores it in memory.
  4. 4. D-A Converter: It is another type of converter. It converts digital data into analog data.
  5. 5. Actuator: It checks the output generated during digital-to-analog conversion.

When you go to an on-demand app development company for an embedded system, its developers focus on the system structure and then move to a suitable embedded programming language. It is because a structure is the core of any robust system.

Embedded Hardware

An embedded hardware layer is built around a central processing unit (CPU). Since it is the main system controller, embedded hardware must be connected to it. A central processing unit can be presented as follows.

  • If there is a single and simple operation, a microprocessor with only a CPU is enough.
  • Microcontroller combines RAM, ROM, CPU, I/O ports, and others on a single chip and performs numerous tasks.

Check out the other important embedded hardware components.

  1. Input/Output devices for Input/Output operations
  2. Conversion of physical data into analog electrical signals with the help of sensors in the system.
  3. Computer buses enable the data transfer between hardware resources.
  4. A-D and D-A converters

Here are some supplementary components of an embedded hardware device.

  • Printer
  • Scanner
  • Keyboard
  • Camera

Embedded Software

When developers build system software, they first analyze the complexity level. It helps in the further processes to build an embedded system. So, based on complexity level and requirements, embedded software can have various components. Embedded software in an embedded device consists of 4 parts.

  1. 1. Firmware: It is important to operate a machine code. Firmware is a built-in program for the specific embedded project. It is used to control systems.
  2. 2. Operating System: Without an operating system no computer software and hardware withstand. It manages resources and set rules to complete tasks. Device drivers in the Operating system communicate with API for high-level software components. It allows communication between hardware components. An operating system is basically of two types GPOS (General purpose operating system) and RTOS (Real-time operating system).
  3. 3. Middleware: It is software that allows communication between upper and lower software levels. It is also called a software intermediator. Middleware works between application software and operating system and is developed for particular tasks.
  4. 4. Application Software: It is a type of computer program and is developed according to need. For example, Microsoft Word, Spreadsheet, Photoshop, Microsoft office, and others. They are developed for a specific task.

Developers have to create a prototype model in software engineering if they are building a complex project and want fewer mistakes in the end product. Whether it is hardware or software, developing a prototype is a part of some embedded systems.

Important Types of Embedded Systems

Types of an embedded system can not be understood without classifying them. So, you can study them in two criteria. One is based on performance and functional requirements and another is based on the performance of the microcontroller. Scroll down to know about all the types in the detail.



Based on performance and functional requirements

  1. 1. Real-Time Embedded Systems

    Real-time embedded systems are built to complete a task in a predetermined amount of time. It works on some basic concepts for finishing the work in real time. Such devices are GPS systems, fitness trackers, ATMs, and others.

  2. 2. Stand Alone Embedded Systems

    As the name implies, they function independently. Stand-alone embedded systems don’t rely on the host system because they are self-sufficient. They can work by themselves to complete any tasks. For example, calculators, digital cameras, temperature measurement systems, and many others.

  3. 3. Networked Embedded Systems

    They need a network connection to complete a task. A networked embedded system needs sensors and controllers for the interconnection of the components to the network. They can rely on wire or wireless networks. And need communication with servers to produce output. Here are some examples of networked embedded systems, IoT, Cyber-physical systems, and sensor networks.

  4. 4. Mobile Embedded Systems

    Wearable fitness devices are the best examples of mobile embedded systems because they have applications for specific tasks. Wireless sensors and smartphones also come under this category. They are small in size and people can use them on smaller devices. These types of systems are mostly found in mobile devices which is why they are called mobile embedded systems.

Based on the Performance of the Microcontroller

  1. 1. Small Scale Embedded System

    Small-scale embedded systems can have 8-bit or 16-bit microcontrollers. They are designed to be portable and a battery can provide power to the microcontroller.

  2. 2. Medium Scale Embedded System

    This is generally 16-bit or 32-bit. More than one microcontroller can be linked together for completing a task. Many developers say that medium-scale embedded systems have some hardware and software complexities therefore it is preferred lesser than others.

  3. 3. Sophisticated Embedded System

    It is considered the most complex embedded system. It is because this type of system is advanced and includes various innovative features. it requires more time and effort for development. Some people call it an advanced embedded system because of multiple algorithms. Resultant, it makes the development process difficult.

Applications of Embedded Systems

You have read about what is an embedded system, its types, structure, and others, but without knowing its applications, you can’t understand it perfectly. So, here I have come up with some applications of embedded systems. Here you go!



    1. 1. Automotive Industry

      Automatic transmission, cruise control, anti-lock braking system, many sensors, and blindspot detection make a car safe and strong. Fuel control embedded system helps to know the level of fuel. Moreover, to reduce air pollution, emission control systems are used in cars and other vehicles.

      Embedded system programming in the automotive industry proved great for drivers. They have systems for climate control and heated seats in cars. it has made driving more comfortable and safe than before. In addition, e-vehicles have made it to the market and the EV charging station finder app is already here.

    2. 2. Smart Cities

      Embedded developers have built various systems to make cities smarter. Numerous electronic devices like smart cameras on the streets, lights, sensors, smart parking, surveillance system, interactive kiosk, pollution monitoring solutions, and many other community services are based on embedded system technology.

    3. 3. Medical Devices

      Embedded systems are used in medical equipment, medical surgery, and patient check for different diseases. It is helpful for patients who need 24/7 hour monitoring and sensors that inform the doctor about the patient’s condition. Sensors collect information related to pulse rate, heart rate, and others. likewise, wherever the doctor is, he can still know the condition of the patient. Some of the devices are

      1. Pacemaker
      2. Defibrillator
      3. Ultrasound scanner
    4. 4. Manufacturing Equipment

      The manufacturing industry uses embedded software for high-precision tasks. It reduces the dangerous work conditions for humans because robots take care of them. Robots rely on embedded system programming in their work. They make no mistakes and help to reduce the cost of manufacturing. Artificial Intelligence and machine learning technologies are used in the manufacturing industry’s embedded software development.

    5. 5. Domestic Appliances

      Using a microwave oven was not easy for some people because they don’t know how this wonderful appliance worked. From cooking to setting appliances you can find embedded systems in your kitchen everywhere. Different software development models are used by developers as per the business needs. They make sure the software completes the task on time and also saves the guess. Here are some examples of domestic appliances.

      • Smart Grill
      • Smart Fridge
      • Coffee makers
      • Fryers
      • Smart Folk
    6. 6. Gaming Console

      Gaming consoles are also made up of embedded system programming. Special-purpose computers are needed for playing video games. Game consoles have some user interfaces, a CPU, RAM, software kernel, video, and audio output, power supply, and others. You have to use paddles, a joystick, and others to the play game. But without the embedded system programming, these consoles can not be connected to each other.

    7. 7. Smart Homes

      Various IoT devices are built with the help of embedded system programming. Without embedded systems programming enabling the devices is not possible. A Digital camera, smartphone, air conditioner, fridge, machine, Vacuum, music system, TV, and more are home appliances that make a home smart. Connect smart cameras with TV and Phone so that you can keep the home safe by knowing all the activities in the home.

    8. idea-for-an-embedded-system

Best Programming languages & OS for Embedded System

How to create an embedded system? People have to learn about embedded system programming and the steps to develop any software. Let’s know some programming languages that you must learn if you want to build embedded software.

  1. 1. C and C++

    C and C++ are old programming languages but are still used for embedded programming in a hardware chip. C programming language is the core of other programming languages. There are some advantages to using C and C++. They are as follows.

    1. Low-level programming language helps to access components easily.
    2. Due to a lack of automatic memory management, compiled programs use little memory.
    3. The speed of low-level programming languages is excellent.
  2. 2. C #

    It was derived from the C family. It can be the best choice for building programming embedded systems because it can run on various architectures. Various software development companies use c# for embedded programming.

  3. 3. Assembly language

    Sometimes back, when developers used embedded systems. It was like this because of limited memory efficiency. Developers have to keep tight control of memory and assembly language is the best option for it. Many software development tools are also used with languages.

  4. 4. Java

    It is the most popular programming language and is used in numerous software. Developers can create impeccable programs with the help of this programming language. You can develop a full-fledged embedded project using Java.

  5. 5. Python

    Python provides high readability and clear syntax of the program which is good for building any embedded system. A rich and supportive community makes it easy for developers to find the solution to any problem. It’s a cross-platform language with various characteristics.

  6. 6. Linux and ThreadX

    Linux is a traditional operating system for smart appliances. Many developers still use Linux for embedded programming. They build smart appliances using this programming language as per the need of the business.

    Programming languages are the core of creating an app from scratch for smart appliances or devices. Software layers make an embedded system complete and it is created with programming languages.

What Challenges Come in Embedded System Development?

Developing an embedded system is not easy. A skilled team works on different tasks of the development process. They plan, design, and develop the prototyping. If you know about the major challenges before moving ahead to develop a system, the task can become a little easy for you.

Here is a list of some challenges.

  • Security
  • Stability
  • Safety
  • Design Limitations
  • Launch Phase
  • Compatibility and Integrity
  1. 1. Security

    Since IoT devices and embedded systems are getting popular and are used by many sectors, their security issue has also increased. Home appliances, robots, digital cameras, and other devices get serious hacking attacks.

  2. 2. Stability

    For whatever reason you have made computer hardware, it should work accordingly or complete the task. If it shows unexpected behavior it means, the system is not stable. When you select an embedded programming language make sure it is suitable for the type of system you will make.

  3. 3. Safety

    Today devices are connected to the internet very well and all the information is also saved on online servers. So, hackers can get into the information available online and modify the information. Changing safety features frequently is not easy because it’s a long process.

  4. 4. Design Limitations

    Demand for smaller size and high-power embedded programming systems is at its peak. Most businesses want compact-size systems and portable devices. So, design limitations often become a difficult situation to deal with.

  5. 5. Launch Phase

    Higher competition in the market prompts businesses to launch their electronic components as soon as possible. Quick development in the systems requires regular changes in the peripheral interfaces as well. Development for the internal and external peripherals increases the time for the launch phase.

  6. 6. Compatibility and Integrity

    Several new businesses that have not even completed three years yet launched their apps. 98% of the traffic of embedded devices is not secured. It is always a threat for co confidential data breaches and others. So, for compatibility and integrity making a robust system is a must.

Our Embedded Programming Services

Technource is the top software development company in the USA. We have developed various types of software, apps, and websites for different sectors and enterprises as per their needs.

Moreover, with a pool of talented developers and several years of experience in embedded system programming, low-level programming language, and high-level programming language we have made a renowned place in the world of software development.

Have a look at our services:

  1. 1. Mobile App Development: We have developed various mobile apps to date. Different tools and technologies help us to build an innovative and robust system for our clients.
  2. 2. Web App Development: Many big brands are moving to web apps because of different reasons. We received many requests for building applications for various electronic devices.
  3. 3. UI/UX Designing: UI and UX designs are crucial to attract the eyeballs of app users. For a creative and innovative look of the app UI and UX designs must be developed carefully. Our designers make sure the client gets what he is asked for.
  4. 4. Website & App Revamping: With time, everything needs to be revamped so as apps and websites. We offer website and app updates at a reasonable price. Our developers analyze the market trends before revamping to add cutting-edge features.
  5. 5. Software Migration Services: If you want your website to be improved and give high performance, then transferring it from one technology to another is crucial. Many businesses want to change the technology and programming language of their websites for better design and high performance.

Final Words

We are living in a world where machines know about us more than anyone. They have made our lives easy, comfortable, and fast. In the future, you can see many other larger systems enriched with innovative features. The focus will be on more power consumption and high performance for embedded systems.

Stay tuned for more informative posts.




Saikat Ghosh working as a Business & HR head at mobile app development company, Technource. He is an Electrical engineer by education and studied management from IIM, Calcutta. He has worked last 23 years in client-facing roles like Marketing, Sales, and Support. He loves to work with on-demand app development, Marketing & Sales strategies, brainstorm new ideas, and learn from people. When he is off from his regular job, he works for his theatre group.

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